Signing a transaction requires a private key, but storing a private key on your personal computer or phone leaves it subject to theft. Adding a password to your key adds security, but many people prefer to take it a step further and move their private keys to a separate physical device called a hardware wallet. A hardware wallet is a small handheld device that stores private keys and provides some interface for signing transactions.
The Solana CLI has first class support for hardware wallets. Anywhere
you use a keypair filepath (denoted as
<KEYPAIR> in usage docs), you
can pass a keypair URL that uniquely identifies a keypair in a
The Solana CLI supports the following hardware wallets:
Solana defines a keypair URL format to uniquely locate any Solana keypair on a hardware wallet connected to your computer.
The keypair URL has the following form, where square brackets denote optional fields:
WALLET_ID is a globally unique key used to disambiguate multiple devices.
DERVIATION_PATH is used to navigate to Solana keys within your hardware wallet.
The path has the form
<ACCOUNT>[/<CHANGE>], where each
are positive integers.
For example, a fully qualified URL for a Ledger device might be:
All derivation paths implicitly include the prefix
44'/501', which indicates
the path follows the BIP44 specifications
and that any derived keys are Solana keys (Coin type 501). The single quote
indicates a "hardened" derivation. Because Solana uses Ed25519 keypairs, all
derivations are hardened and therefore adding the quote is optional and